|British Thermal Unit (Btu) : The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Burner Tip: The point at which natural gas is available in the customer's home or business
Cathodic Protection : Pipeline cathodic protection (CP) systems are designed to limit corrosion of steel pipe and other underground metallic structures. If left unprotected, the natural electrolytic conditions in the soil will cause small electrical currents to flow away from the pipe's surface, carrying with it, microscopic metal particles. Cathodic protection prevents metal particles from leaving the pipe's surface by forcing electrical current to flow toward the pipe, which opposes or cancels out any natural current attempting to leave the structure.
Centralised Utility Facilities (CUF) : Essentially a strategically located facility to provide utilities such as steam, electricity and industrial gases and other specific services to the integrated petrochemical complexes in the Kertih and Gebeng industrial areas. It is designed and built for the production of utilities to maximise benefits from inter-plant synergy, enhance operational efficiency, achieve economies of scale and reduce capital outlay for the petrochemical projects.
City Gate : A point or measuring station at which a distribution gas utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system
Cleaning Pig : A utility "pig" that uses cups, scrapers, or brushes to remove dirt, paraffin, rust, mill scale, or other foreign matter from the inside of a pipeline. Cleaning pigs are run to increase the operating efficiency of a pipeline or to prepare the pipeline for an internal inspection.
Cogeneration : An energy system that consumes a fuel, usually natural gas, to produce noth heat and electricity. Cogeneration systems are very efficient because they capture and use energy that otherwise would be wasted
Combined-Cycle System : An energy system that consumes a fule, usually natrual gas, to produce electricity. Combined-cycle systems are very efficient because they capture and use heat that otherwise would be wasted
Any permanent combination of facilities which supplies the energy to move gas at increased pressure from production fields, in transmission lines, or into storage. Compressor stations are strategically placed along the pipeline to boost the pressure to maintain required flow rates.
Typical components found at gas compressor stations include: piping manifolds, coolers, valves, reciprocating or centrifugal compressors, prime movers (electric motors, gas engines, gas turbines), and local controls and instrumentation.
Cubic Foot : In the measurement of gas supplied and metered to customers at standard delivery pressure, a cubic foot of gas is the volume of gas which, at the temperature and pressure existing in the meter, occupies one cubic foot
Distributed Generation : Electricity generation that occurs at or near the site of ultimate consumption as opposed to most electricity which is generated at a remote site and transported by long-distance transmission lines to the customer.
Dry Gas: Non-liquid and mainly contains water and hydrocarbons
Fossil fuel : A fuel source, primarily oil, coal and natural gas, that originates from decayed fossils
Gas Hub : A centralized sales and distribution point for natural gas reserves. Gas hubs can have multiple gas sources and multiple destinations. A hub allows for the formulation of clear and transparent valuation and pricing of gas at the hub
Heating Value : The average number of British thermal units per cubic foot of natural gas as determined from tests of fuel samples
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) : LNG (primarily methane) is a form of Natural Gas that has been cooled to approximately –260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. One volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas at a stove burner tip. LNG is by nature odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) : LPG is very often confused with LNG, but they are not the same. LPG's main components are Propane (about 95%) and small quantities of Butane. It is stored in tanks by applying pressure alone. LPG's boiling point (-47 degrees Fahrenheit) also differs from that of LNG, so the pressure required for liquefaction is considerable.
Natural Gas Liquids : Natural Gas Liquids are one of the least known components of Natural Gas. It is mainly made out of ethane, propane, and butane.
Natural Gas : A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane
Pipeline : A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and / or supplemental gas from one point to another, usually from a point in or beyond the producing field or processing plant to another pipeline or to points of use.
Pipeline Fuel : Gas consumed in the operation of pipelines, primarily in compressors
Plant Fuel : Natural gas used as fuel in natural gas processing plants
Proved Energy Reserves : Estimated quantities of energy sources that analysis of geologic and engineering data demonstrates with reasonable certainty are recoverable under existing economic and operating conditions. The location, quantity, and grade of the energy source are usually considered to be well established in such reserves
Quad : A unit of energy of 1 quadrillion British thermal units.
1) The legal right to pass over land owned by someone else
2) A narrow strip of land which is used to legally pass over land owned by someone else
Tcf : A trillion cubic feet of natural gas, equivalent in energy content to 1.03 quads
Therm : a unit of heating value equivalent to one hundred thousand British thermal units
Throughput : The amount of gas travelling through the natural gas delivery system
Total Energy Efficiency : Refers to the energy that is used or lost in the processes of energy production, processing, conversion, transmission, distribution and use
Wellhead : The point of gas production. Natural gas prices are often cited "at the wellhead" as opposed to the point of consumption which also includes the cost of transporting gas from the wellhead to the consumer
Wet Gas : Liquid dispersants made up of water and hydrocarbons